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Thyroid Gland: Meaning, Structure, Functions and Other

Thyroid Gland

The term thyroid gland may have been heard by most people. However, most people do not necessarily know what the thyroid gland is, its structure, function and abnormalities. Therefore, to find out what the thyroid gland is, let’s look at the explanation below in full.


Definition of the Thyroid Gland

The thyroid gland is one of the endocrine glands located in the human neck, at the bottom near the wall of the larynx, to the right in front of the trachea, located under the Adam’s apple. In general, the thyroid gland consists of 2 lobes, namely the left lobe and the right lobe (extra lobe and left lobe) which are interconnected and have a length of about 5 cm, a width of 3 cm and a thickness of 2 cm.

Thyroid Gland Structure

The structure of the thyroid gland has three components, namely thyroid follicles, follicular cells and parafollicular cells. Here’s the explanation:

Thyroid Follicle

Thyroid follicles are small cells that function as the main component in carrying out thyroid function with a diameter of 0.02-0.9 mm. Within the nucleus of the thyroid follicle there are blood vessels, nerve vessels and spleen vessels that surround the nucleus. Thyroid follicles are commonly known as precursor proteins and thygroglobulins.

Follicular Cell

Follicular cells are the core cells of the thyroid follicular and the shape of the follicular cells is dynamic or varies greatly depending on the level of activity can be cuboidal or flat cuboidal. If thyroid follicular cells are stimulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), they will produce or secrete thyroid hormones T3 and T4.

Sell ​​Parafollicles

Parafollicular cells are a minority of parafollicular cells that produce calcitonin which participates in calcium homeostasis and are commonly referred to as C cells.

The working mechanism of the thyroid gland in secreting hormones

The thyroid gland needs iodine to secrete thyroid hormone in a normal scale. Iodine is needed for the basic ingredients or the beginning of making thyroid hormones. The human body has a unique mechanism or process to adjust thyroid hormone levels in the body.

At the beginning of the process the hypothalamus will produce thyrotropin releasing hormone (TSH) to stimulate the thyroid gland which will secrete thyroid hormone in the blood. In this case to maintain stability or hormonal balance in the body. When the thyroid hormone is low, it is called hypothyroidism, while when the body has too much thyroid hormone, it is called hyperthyroidism.

There are two hormones found in the body as follows:

Thyroxine (T4)

Thyroxine is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland which has a milder effect on the body’s metabolic rate directly and thyroxine (T4) will be converted into Thyroxine (T3) so that it works effectively and efficiently.

Tri-iodothyronine (T3)

Tri-iodothyronin (T3), which is a form of the hormone thyroxine, is active and works more effectively and efficiently. The conversion of thyroxine (T4) to thyroxine (T3) occurs in the liver and several other organs in the body.

In addition to the two hormones above, the thyroid gland also produces the hormone calcitonin which functions to regulate calcium levels in the blood. Thyroid cells that have the obligation to produce this are parafollicular cells, while calcitonin can reduce the release of protein from bone by decreasing the activity of osteoclasts in the bone.

Thyroid Gland Function

The main function of the thyroid gland is to produce or produce hormones that can regulate the speed of metabolism in the human body. In addition there are several functions of the thyroid gland in the body as follows:

  • Increase oxygen consumption in the body and the level of energy expenditure in the body
  • Increase heart rate, cheat heart and breathing rate
  • Increases the absorption of glucose by the intestines and increases the production of glucose by the liver
  • Accelerates the clearance of cholesterol from plasma
  • Has an important role in the growth and maturation of the central nervous system
  • Affects the menstrual cycle for women.

Thyroid Gland Disorder

Although the thyroid gland has an important role in our body, this thyroid gland cannot be free from abnormalities caused by this thyroid gland. There are several disorders of the thyroid gland including the following:

  • The emergence of Hashimoto’s disease
  • The emergence of Graves’ disease
  • The occurrence of trauma
  • The appearance of thyroid nodules

Therefore, for all of you, it’s a good idea to maintain health regularly with a healthy lifestyle that will affect later on the components or organs of the body that are in our bodies as well as various gland cells in our bodies. Thus information about the Thyroid Gland: Understanding the Thyroid Gland complete with its structure, function and abnormalities.

Hopefully this article can be useful and beneficial for all of you. Thank you for taking the time to visit this website to read this article. Warm greetings always from the author.

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