Definition, Terms, Functions, Types and Elements

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map definition

A map is an image of the Earth’s surface in a plane at a certain scale through a projection system. Maps can be displayed in many ways, from traditional printed maps to digital maps displayed on a computer screen. The term map comes from the Greek word mappa meaning tablecloth or tablecloth. But in general, the definition of a map is a sheet of all or part of the Earth’s surface on a flat plane, which is reduced with a certain scale. A map is a two-dimensional representation of three-dimensional space. The study of cartography is called cartography. Many maps have a scale that determines the size of the objects on the map in their actual state. A collection of several maps called an atlas.


Map terms

A card is considered good if it meets the following requirements:

  1. Compatible, which is the shape of the drawn map that must match the original or actual conditions in the area of ​​origin or in the field.
  2. Equidestan, d. h. The distance on the map multiplied by the given scale based on the distance on the ground.
  3. Equivalent, that is, the area or areas drawn on the map after calculations with a scale depending on the condition on the ground.

Map function

In general, the function of the map is as follows:

  1. Displays the location or location of a location on the Earth’s surface.
  2. Displays the size (area and distance) and direction of the location on the Earth’s surface.
  3. Describe the shapes on Earth’s surface such as continents, countries, mountains, rivers, and other shapes.
  4. Support the researcher before conducting the survey to determine the condition of the area under investigation.
  5. Provide data on regional potential.
  6. Analysis tool to draw conclusions.
  7. A tool to explain the proposed plan.
  8. A tool for examining the interrelationships between geographical phenomena (symptoms) on the Earth’s surface.

Various maps

Here are some types of maps, among others:


1. Map type based on the data content provided:

  1. General map, a map showing the appearance of the earth, natural and cultural phenomena. Common cards are divided into three types:
  2. Topographic maps, maps that comfortably depict the Earth’s surface. The topography of the Earth’s surface is shown on the map in the form of contour lines. Contour lines are lines on the map that connect places of equal height.
  3. Chorographic maps, maps representing all or part of the Earth’s surface, are general in nature and usually of medium scale. An example of a dance map is the atlas
  4. World or geography map, which is a very small overview map with a very large coverage area.
  5. Special maps (thematic maps), maps describing information on specific / specific topics. For example, political maps, geological maps, land use maps, tourist distribution maps, population density maps, etc.

2. Map type based on data source:

  1. Derived map, which is a map based on an existing map reference, so no direct level scaling is required.
  2. The main map is a map created from measurements directly on the site.

3. Map Type on the Basis of Scale:

  1. Cadastral maps (very large) are maps at a scale of >1:100 to >1:5000. Examples: maps, maps
  2. Mining Big maps are maps with a scale of >1:5000 to >1:250,000. Example: Neighborhood Card
  3. The center map is a map on a scale from >1:250,000 to >1:500,000. Example: county map
  4. Small maps are cards at a scale of >1:500,000 to >1:1,000,000. Example: country map
  5. A geographic map (very small) is a map at a scale of >1:1,000,000 and below. Example: continent/world map

4. Type of Map by Model:

  1. Flat maps, 2D maps, plain maps, or flat cards, which are in the form of flat maps and designed on a flat plane like a canvas. This map is painted with different colors or symbols etc.
  2. New maps, 3D maps or stereo maps, almost identical maps and even the same actual situation on the ground. Using 3D shadows creates a map so that the surface of the Earth looks like the original.
  3. Digital maps, cards resulting from the processing of digital data stored on a computer. These maps can be stored on a floppy disk or CD. Examples: satellite images and aerial photos.
  4. Line maps are maps that show natural data and artificial appearance in the form of points, lines, and areas.
  5. Picture cards, maps created from mosaic of aerial photographs with contour lines, names and legends.

5. Map type by level of detail:

  1. Detailed map, map at a scale of >1:25,000
  2. Half-detailed maps, maps at a scale of >1:50000
  3. Check the map, a map with a scale of >1:250,000

Map Elements

Map elements are anything that must be on the map or parts that must be included on the map. If the map element is not satisfied, the card is not good or not good.
Here are some map elements that should be included in the map.


1. Map address

Map address

The title of the map reflects the main content of the map. For example, a map with the title “Map of Indonesia” means that the map is the country of Indonesia.


2. Map scale

map scale

The map scale shows the ratio of the distance on the map to the actual distance on the ground. An example of a map with a scale of 1:1,000,000 means that a distance of 1 cm on the map corresponds to 1 million cm or 10 km on the ground or the actual distance. Based on the figure, the scale of the map is grouped into two groups, namely, the scale of the line and the scale of numbers.

  • Scala Garris (Scala Graphic)

The definition of a line scale is a map scale in the form of a line with a certain size ratio. The line scale is usually placed inside the main map above the legend or in the legend column.


  • digital scale (digital scale)

It is a scale in the form of numbers or in the form of numbers. Scale numbers are usually placed in the top legend or in the legend column. Here are examples of numbers:
Cartographic scale 1: 400,000. This means that 1 cm on the map is equivalent to 400,000 cm (4 km) on the Earth’s surface.


3. Orientation or orientation

direction or direction

In general, maps use the north direction, that is, the top of the map always points north. Shapes or direction symbols for different map directions, one of which is the arrow with the letter U at the top.
The map direction is usually placed in a blank spot on the main map.


4. Map symbol or map logo

map icon

Card codes or card codes are different types of codes. Interpretation of a map symbol is a special character on the map that represents a specific object. The purpose of using codes on cards is to make it easier for card users to read and understand the contents of the card.

Depending on their shape, the symbols of the map are grouped into 4:


  1. point symbol

Bullets on maps come in different sizes and shapes, some in the form of squares, triangles, circles, and other shapes.


Line symbols take the form of different fonts: bold lines, dashes, parallel lines, plus and dot signs, plus and minus signs, and others.


The colors used are not all colors that can be used, but only special colors. Some colors have special meanings or meanings that describe the state of nature drawn on the map. Natural conditions and social manifestations that can be written with colored symbols include: products of human culture (such as cities, roads, temples, etc.), highlands, lowlands, waters, etc.


There are no usable images for map symbols in this section, and the image format for map symbols is a specific image of an image, for example. Coconut trees, cedar, animals, etc. The images used are not actual images either, and are usually only in the form of illustrations. The shape of the image on the card icon symbolizes the state of the object depicted on the cash card.


5. Astrological lines

astronomy line

What is the astrological line? Astronomical lines are longitude and latitude with degrees at the edges of the map. Astrological lines are imaginary lines that do not exist on the surface of the Earth. Astrological figures should be made on the map because they are very important and very useful. What is the function of the astrological line? Follower:

  • Longitude and latitude to find the location of a place or area
  • Longitude to determine the time zone in the map area
  • Latitude to determine the solar climate zone of the area to be photographed.

6. Inserts

inserts

What is the supplement? An aperture is a small map on the main map, which acts as an indication of the location of an area linked to another, wider area. Sometimes the slots are on the main map, especially the empty spots. The apertures are drawn at a different scale than the base map scale


7. Lettering

lettering

These are numbers (numbers) and writing on the card. Each card must contain a number or letter that explains each appearance that appears on the card. Typical scripts are used to write the names of rivers, lakes, cities, and other names. The card number is usually used to write the number of degrees and the height of the place.


8. Legend

legend

What is the legend? A legend is an element or part of a map that contains descriptions of map symbols. The legend is located on the map in a loose/wide area on the main map.


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