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Definition, Functions, Types & Characteristics

Immaku.com This time we will discuss about the structure of the roots – the roots are located at the bottom usually in the ground. Root growth in soil or in water. It is white or yellow in color in contrast to the stems or leaves, which usually turn green.

Some of these epidermal cells form root hairs with outer wall extensions. To carry out the process of absorbing water and nutrients extracted from the soil.

In this discussion, we will explain completely and clearly about the Root Structure. For the full review… Read as follows.

Definition of Root

Understanding Roots is the presence of an underside of a plant that usually grows underground. Some types of plants have roots that grow in the air.

The shape and structure of the roots are many and varied. This condition is related to the function of the root, which is a place to store food, watery roots, breath and even root hairs. When a dicot plant germinates, the roots come out at the bottom.

This fruit is also known as the root of the germ that passes through the soil. The fruit is called primary root. Therefore, several types of roots form branch roots, which are referred to as secondary roots.

Root Network Function

Although monocot and dicot plants have different root systems, they have similar root functions. The root part is the organ in the plant that works with the following information: (Also read: Gymnosperm Example)

  • To carry out the process of absorbing water and nutrients extracted from the soil.
  • To support and strengthen the formation of plant body parts.
  • Of the types of plants, roots have a dying function, as in mangrove plants.
  • While in some types of plants roots have a function for space that is used as a reservoir for food and also as vegetative dispersal.

Root Structure

The root structure of this plant can be observed by cutting cross roots. Therefore, the structure can be divided into 2 groups, namely:

1. Exterior Root Structure (Root Morphology)

The external structure of the root can be referred to as (root morphology), namely:

  • Neck or Root Base
    Is in a part of the root that is connected to a stem base.
  • Root Tip
    As the point where the roots grow, it is protected with a root cap, also known as Calypra.
  • Root Stem
    Included in a part of the root that lies between the root canals.
  • Root Branches
    Included in a part that is not connected directly to the base of the stem, but not to the root.
  • Root Fiber
    Namely the smooth and fibrous root branches.
  • Root Hair or Root Hairs
    The existence of a form of protrusion of cells outside the skin (epidermis) and spread absorption of water and minerals. Root hairs only grow at the base of the root and are generally short.
  • Root Cap (Caliptra)
    It is located at the back and serves to protect the roots from mechanical damage when they pass through the soil.

2. Inner Structure of Root

The various structures of this root, including the following:

a. Epidermis

The cell composition of the epidermis is composite and broad is one of the cell layers, in which the cell wall can be easily traced with water. Some of these epidermal cells form root hairs with outer wall extensions.

Root hairs are epidermal cell models, which have the task of absorbing water and dissolving mineral salts. The inner bristles soften the root surface to make absorption more efficient.

b. Cortex

Due to the location of the cortex directly under the epidermis, the cells are not tightly regulated, so there is a lot of space between the cells that play a role in gas exchange. Most of the cortex is formed by a network called parenchyma tissue. This cortex functions as a food storage area.

c. Endodermis

The endodermis is the dividing layer between the cortex and the central cylinder. Most endodermic cells have cassette-like sections containing cork (suberine material) or lignin material. That part is called a cassette.

Root Type

There are various types in this root, including the following:

a. Root Roots

Most tap roots have dicotyledonous plants sown heavily. The roots of dicotyledonous plants have a straight main root that is attached to the undercoat and has branches on the sides.

Based on the number of branches, taproots can be divided into two types, namely several or more branched taproots and branched taproots.

b. Fiber Root

In general, fibrous roots are obtained from monocot plants. Root fibers consist of small and long coconut fibers. Fibers are formed from dead institutional roots and grow new roots of the same size as those at the base of the stem.

There are various types of roots, such as thread (for example rice), root mines in coconuts, large fibrous roots in Pandan.

Root Characteristics

As for the various characteristics in the root, among them are the following:

  • Roots are located at the bottom, usually in the ground. Root growth in soil or in water.
  • The growth at the tip of the root is one of the main growth points, where metabolic tissue and apical dominance mechanisms are in the root.
  • It is white or yellow in color in contrast to the stems or leaves, which usually turn green.
  • The top of the root is usually directed to penetrate the soil or burst from the rock.
  • In general, roots away from light to grow faster.

Read Also:

Thus the discussion this time, which we have explained in full and clearly about the Root Structure. Hopefully this review, can be useful and beneficial for all of you.

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