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Definition, functions, types and characteristics

yabram.com This time we will discuss the structure of the root – the roots are located at the bottom, usually in the soil. Growing roots in soil or water. It is white or yellow in color unlike the stems or leaves, which usually turn green.

Some of these epidermal cells form root hairs with extensions of the outer wall. To carry out the process of absorbing water and nutrients extracted from the soil.

In this discussion, we will fully and clearly explain the root structure. For the full review… Read more.

Definition of root

Understanding roots is the presence of a lower part of a plant that usually grows underground. Some types of plants have roots that grow in the air.

The shape and structure of roots are many and varied. This condition is related to the function of the root, which is a place to store food, water roots, respiration, and even root hairs. When a dicotyledonous plant sprouts, the roots emerge from below.

This fruit is also known as the root of the germ that passes through the soil. The fruit is called the primary root. Therefore, some types of roots form branch roots, called secondary roots.

Root network function

Although monocots and dicots have different root systems, they have similar root functions. The part of the root is the organ of the plant that functions with the following information: (Also Read: Gymnosperm Example)

  • To carry out the process of absorbing water and nutrients extracted from the soil.
  • To support and strengthen the formation of plant body parts.
  • Among plant species, roots have a deadening function, as in mangrove plants.
  • While in some types of plants the roots have a function for space which is used as a reservoir for food and also as a vegetative distribution.

Racine structure

The root structure of this plant can be observed by cutting the roots crosswise. Therefore, the structure can be divided into 2 groups, namely:

1. External root structure (root morphology)

The external structure of the root can be called (root morphology), namely:

  • Neck or Root
    It is found in a part of the root that connects to a stem base.
  • root tip
    As the growth point of the root, it is protected by a root cap, also known as Calypra.
  • The stem of the root
    It is included in a part of the root located between the root canals.
  • root branches
    It is included in a part that is not directly connected to the base of the stem, but not to the root.
  • root fiber
    That is, smooth and fibrous root branches.
  • root hairs or root hairs
    Existence of a form of cell protrusion outside the skin (epidermis) and diffuse absorption of water and minerals. Root hairs grow only at the base of the root and are usually short.
  • Chapeau de racine (Caliptra)
    It is located at the back and serves to protect the roots from mechanical damage when they pass through the soil.

2. The internal structure of the root

The various structures of this root, including the following:

a. Epidermis

The cellular composition of the epidermis is composite and broad is one of the cell layers, in which the cell wall can be easily traced with water. Some of these epidermal cells form root hairs with extensions of the outer wall.

Root hairs are models of epidermal cells, which have the task of absorbing water and dissolving mineral salts. The inner fibers smooth the surface of the root to make absorption more efficient.

b. The cortex

Due to the location of the cortex directly under the epidermis, the cells are not tightly arranged, so there is a lot of space between the cells that play a role in gas exchange. Most of the cortex is formed by a network called parenchymal tissue. This cortex functions as a food storage area.

c. endoderm

Endoderm is the separating layer between the cortex and the central cylinder. Most endoderm cells have cassette-like sections containing cork (suberin material) or lignin. This part is called a strip.

Root type

There are different types of this root, including:

a. Tap root

Most of the roots have widely planted dicotyledonous plants. The roots of dicotyledonous plants have a straight main root which is attached to the lower layer and has branches on the sides.

On the basis of the number of branches, taproots can be divided into two types, namely multi-branched taproots and branched taproots.

b. fiber root

Generally, fibrous roots are obtained from monocotyledonous plants. Root fibers consist of small and long coir fibers. Threads are formed from dead institutional roots and develop new roots of the same size as those at the base of the stem.

There are different types of roots such as string (eg rice), coconut root, large fibrous Pandan root.

Root characteristics

Different characteristics of roots, including:

  • The roots are located at the bottom, usually in the soil. Growing roots in soil or water.
  • The growth of the root tip is one of the main points of growth, where metabolic tissues and mechanisms of apical dominance reside in the root.
  • It is white or yellow in color unlike the stems or leaves, which usually turn green.
  • The tip of the root is usually directed to penetrate the soil or erupt from the rock.
  • Generally, roots move away from light to grow faster.

Read also:

So the discussion this time, which we have explained fully and clearly, namely the Root Structure. I hope this review can be helpful and useful for all of you.

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