Definition, Functions, Benefits, Characteristics and Types

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Language Definition

Language is one of the communication devices used by humans, language is also an important link between human relationships.

Therefore, language can be said to be a must and very urgent thing as a criterion for communicating between people.

This language is literally a means used by each living creature (especially humans) to communicate and interact socially with other living things.

Language function

  • For practical purposes, namely holding relationships in everyday interactions.
  • For artistic purposes, humans process and use language as beautifully as possible to satisfy the beautiful human feeling.
  • A tool to channel the meaning of beliefs, norms and values ​​that exist in society.
  • As a tool for thinking.
  • As a tool of social control.
  • For learning purposes, as a medium for studying various kinds of knowledge, both those that are still within the scope of the language itself, or outside the scope of language, such as in historical knowledge and other sciences.
  • As a means of knowing yourself and others.
  • As a means of expression.
  • Build character and intelligence.
  • For philological purposes, the use of language is to study various old manuscripts to investigate the background of human history, the development of language itself, and so on.
  • As a guide to witness the existence of facts in a society.

Language Benefits

1. The Official Language of a Country

There are countries in which there are many regional languages, for example, Indonesia which consists of many ethnic groups.

Therefore, an official language is needed in order to unite all Indonesian citizens from various ethnic groups. In this case, our legal language is Indonesian.

2. Introduction to the World of Education

In presenting material in the world of education, it must use a legal language that is understood by residents of the country concerned.

That is why teaching and learning work in our country uses the Indonesian language and is one of the fields of study that all students must study.

3. Cultural and Scientific Development Tools

In the many cultural development efforts that exist in Indonesia, it must be closely related to the use of the Indonesian language.

Even though each tribe and region in Indonesia has its own language, in the process of developing culture and a science in our country, we must also use the official language, namely Indonesian.

4. As a Communication Tool

As mentioned before, language is a group of speeches that have meaning. Each particular word has an abstract meaning and relationship to a concept or object it represents.

Through language, each person can work on two-way communication that is understood by each individual.

5. As a Uniting Tool for a Nation

Language can also be useful as a unifying tool for the nation because of its use as a tool to communicate. Every citizen of a nation can express his thoughts by using an understandable language.

Community communication by using the same language and being understood by each other will unite a nation to be stronger.

6. As the Identity of a Tribe or Nation

Language can also be useful as the identity of a tribe or nation because of its uniqueness. Each tribe / nation must have a different language, this matter becomes its own identity and peculiarity for a tribe or nation.

Language Features

The following are the characteristics of a language consisting of:

1. Language as a System

It means that it consists of components arranged and according to a certain pattern. Systematic that is composed by the pattern.


  • Me: Systematic and meaningful
  • Yasa: Unsystematic and meaningless or meaningless
  • Aasy: Unsystematic and meaningless or meaningless

2. Language as a Symbol

Language symbols are manifested in sound format, in the form of language units such as words or mixtures of words.


  • Red and white flag
  • Red : Dare
  • White : Holy

3. Language is Sound

What is meant by sounds in language or including language emblems are sounds that are not obtained from human speech devices that are not classified as language sounds.


  • Sounds or sounds of screaming, sneezing, coughing, and so on.

4. Language Has Meaning

As explained earlier that language is a system of emblems, therefore because these symbols refer to a concept, idea, or thought, it can be said that the language has meaning.


  • Horse: Four-legged pet that is a means of transportation.

5. Language is Arbitrary

Arbitrary, i.e. arbitrary, arbitrary, so like, arbitrary. What this means is that there is no definite relationship between the language emblem and the concept or definition referred to by the emblem, for example, you cannot state the relationship between the sound (water) emblem and the object being reflected, namely the liquid used.


Language Structure

1. Discourse

Discourse is a unity which is systemized between elements in one language. Discourse can also be interpreted as a linguistic communication which in general can be seen as an exchange in interaction where the form can be determined by social goals.

Based on the two descriptions above then the discourse can be interpreted with a series of confessions that can be set orally or articles in a particular context that have have meaning in the unity of language.

2. Paragraph

A paragraph is a group of a number of sentences arranged in a single unit. Paragraphs are often referred to as paragraphs, both of which have the same meaning.

Because a paragraph is composed of a number of sentences, a paragraph contains a higher mind and a wider range of sentences.

The arrangement of sentences in a paragraph is related to one another from one sentence to another. Each paragraph has its own main idea. The length of the paragraph also depends on a main idea that will be said in the paragraph.

3. Sentence

Sentences are composed of a number of words with a certain pattern. Sentences usually have at least a subject and a predicate, have intonation and meaning.

Sentence is a language unit that is relatively independent with a final pattern and consists of clauses that are used to be able to compose and express proposals in a thought so that it can be communicated with others.

4. Words

A word is a group of letters arranged into a single unit that contains meaning in it. Words can also be explained as one of the elements of language in the form of feelings and thoughts that can be realized and can be used in language.

5. Phoneme

Phonemes are a very small and functional part of language but can separate the meaning of the word conveyed.

Generally, phonemes have different pronunciations in a number of pronunciations depending on where they are located in a word. For example, it has a number of pronunciations depending on where it is.

6. Morpheme

Morpheme is the smallest element in language where the form does not contain parts that are similar to other formats, whether it is seen from the sound or meaning.

Types of Languages

1. Spoken Language

Oral language is a communication between people to express their meaning through words spoken orally or by mouth.

2. Writing Language

The language of the article is a communication format that is formed from a number of vocabularies that are formed to form a sentence that has meaning and can be understood which is then poured into written format.

3. Sign Language

Sign language is a form of communication that uses body parts such as hands and lip movements.

This sign language is usually used by the deaf, they combine hand movements, lip movements, and facial expressions so that the interlocutor can understand what they mean.

4. Inner Language

Inner language is a mental interaction directly using our hearts, inner language does not require the means of words like other types of language. A term that is more similar to inner language communication is telepathy.

5. Programming Language

There is no human problem, language is also used by various technologies, one of which is computers, namely programming languages ​​are used to govern computers by using syntaxes that have been arranged by the programming language itself, the goal is that computers can do what you command.

Thus the discussion about 6 Language Structure: Definition, Function, Benefits, Characteristics and Types from your education

I hope that this can have a benefit for readers :)

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